Prof. JOAO BASTOS
Swimming Pool and Care
Water Temperature and Chemical Products
(NORTHERN HEMISPHERE REGIONS)
Table of water temperature during the year in Swimming pools with exclusive use for competitive training.
Water temperature table during the
year for mixed use pools and
Classification of different temperatures
in Swimming Pools
•The ideal temperature for practicing non-competitive aquatic activities should be between 27 and 29 degrees..
• For the practice of competition according to the FINA, the ideal temperature should be between 25 and 28 degrees. A pool with a temperature above 29 degrees can cause an increase in blood flow in the muscles and an increase in blood pressure, which can cause fainting.
The warmer the pool water is, the greater the likelihood of increased fungi and bacteria. The increase of temperature added to high humidity, turns the environment into a strong culture medium.
The hidden dangers in poorly maintained pools.
UN COVERED SWIMMING POOLS ARE MORE HEALTHY THAN THE COVERED.
THE HAZARDS OF COVERED SWIMMING POOLS IS BEGINING TO BE ASSESSED BY SCIENTISTS.
Can you imagine how much time a swimmer / student spends in the pool for months or years? Depending on the student and your class it can be a very long time. Can you imagine how much chlorine these swimmers swallow? From 20 to 35 grams.
Spanish researchers from the National Institute of HEALTH AND HYGIENE at EL TRABAJO carried out studies in Barcelona in order to evaluate the possibility of occurrences of health problems in swimmers in constant exposure to chlorine.
WHAT HAPPENS ON THE SURFACE?
Chlorine as a strong oxidizing agent evaporates from swimming pools and can be breathed during swimming, especially in CLOSED SITES. Measurements of chlorine concentration on the surface (up to 10 cm in Depth) of several pools indicated a mean level of 0.30 mg. It is not critical. This value is far from the maximum limit of 1.45 mg. So what's the problem? The problem is that this limit can be easily reached and even surpassed if we consider the time spent by the swimmer in a swimming pool, not to mention the teacher who spends the whole day in it.
The concentration of chlorine in the micro cosmos where the swimmer breathes is below the toxic limit, yet, researchers have studied the possibility of correlating this inhalation with respiratory problems that have been reported by swimmers.
Covered swimming pools are truly poorly finished artificial biospheres. Operating system failures in controlling water quality and indoor environment are primarily responsible for all problems. We could even clear the chlorine. Let's see how this happens. Pure chlorine is hardly breathed in the pool, what is actually inhaled is the chloramines. They represent a byproduct of the reaction of chlorine with dirty water from organic materials (urine, sweat, bodily secretions, etc.). Inhalation of chloramines causes respiratory tract irritation and contact with chloraminated air causes eye irritation and itchy skin. We recall that it is in the winter period that people spend more time indoors and are when diseases of the respiratory system appear more often. In the summer, where people spend most of their time in the open, there is less disease. The explanation of this case is simple: when we are in a closed environment we are more prone to diseases, because in normal life or in the swimming pool the artificial environment is a means of growing fungi, mites and bacteria that multiply and manifest in this place.
Research shows that when the water temperature of the pool reaches 29 degrees Celsius, the level of evaporation of chlorine and compounds increases to a level harmful to swimmers. Consequently, with the higher evaporation level, the moisture level also increases, triggering an accelerated proliferation of fungi, bacteria and viruses in the environment. This makes it necessary to add more chlorine in the water, generating more expenses and steam of trichloramine, which, as we said, is harmful to health.
THE CANADIAN EXPERIENCE
Dr. JIM POTTS developed a survey of swimming students and athletes in 1994 for BRITISH COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY in Canada. Respiratory results are astounding. Among the studied athletes are: BRONQUITE (24.9%), hay fever (16.9%), asthma (13.4%) and pneumonia (10.2%). 544 students / swimmers, that is, 73.8% of respondents said they developed respiratory problems and this would be associated with increasing exposure to irritating products in pool chemistry.
IMPORTANT NOTE: AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT IN CONSTANT VENTILATION IS ESSENTIAL!
- Direcção-General de Salud (DGS), Circular normativa nº 14/DA, de 21 de Agosto de 2009. Programa de Vigilância Sanitária de Piscinas:
- Decreto-Lei n.º 82/2009, de 2 de Abril:
- Designing for IAQ in Natatoriums, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 2012:
- Guidelines for recreational water environments. Volume 2: Swimming pools and similar environments”, (2006), da Organização Mundial de Saúde:
L’evaluation des risques sanitaires lies aux piscine partie 1: piscines règlement. Agence Française de Securité Sanitaire de l’environnement et du travail. SaisineAfsset nº 2006711.Beleza, V. M., Santos, R., Pinto, (2007).
Piscinas – Tratamento de água e utilização de energia.Edições Politema. Fundação Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Porto.Bernard, A., Carbonnelle, S., Michel, O., Higuet, S., Burbure, C., Buchet, J-P., Hermans, C., Dumont,X., Doyle, I. (2003). Lung hyperpermeability and asthma prevalence in school children: unexpectedassociations with the attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools. Occup. Envir. Med. 60: 385 – 394.
Bernard A. (2010). Asthma and swimming: weighing the benefits and the risks. J Pediatr . (Rio J).; 86(5): 351 – 352. Da Laat, J., Berne, F., Brunet, R., Here, C. (2009). Sous-produits de chloration forméslors de la désinfection des eaux de piscines. Étude bibliographique. Eur. J. Water Quality, 40: 109 –
128. Da Laat, J., Berne, F., Brunet, R., Here, C. (2009). Sous-produits de chloration formés lors de ladésinfection des eaux de piscines. Étude bibliographique. Eur. J. Water Quality, 40: 109 – 128.
Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E., Predieri, G., Giocobazzi, P., Mastroianni, K., Aggazotti, G. (2010).
Prevalence of ocular, respiratory and cutaneous symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers and exposure todisinfection by-products (DBPs). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 7: 1379-1391.Font-Ribera, L., Villanueva, C. M., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Zock, J-P., Kogevinas, M., Henderson,J.(2011). Swimming pool attendanc, asthma, allergies, and lung function in the Avon longitudinal studyof parents and children cohort.Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Vol 183: 582-588.Gérardin, F., Gerber, J. M., Héry, M., Quénis, B. (1999).
Extraction de chloramines par contactegaz/liquide dans les eaux de piscines. Cahiers de Notes Documentaires – Hygiene et Securité duTravail, nº 177: 21 – 29 Gérardin, F., Hecht, G., Hubert-Pelle, G., Subra, I. (2005). Réduction de l’exposition des travailleurs autrichlorure d’azote par action sur les procédés dans deux secteurs dáctivité
Cahiers de NotesDocumentaires – Hygiene et Securité du Travail, nº 201: 9-18.Héry, M., Hecht, G., Gerber, J. M., Gendre, J. C., Hubert, G., Rebuffaud J. (1995). Exposure tochloramines in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools.Annals of occupational Hygiene .Vol 39, No4: 427-439.
Jacobs, J.H., Spaan S., van Rooy G.B.G.J. , Meliefste, C., Zaat V.A.C., Rooyackers., J.M., Heederik. D.(2007). Exposure to trichloramine and respiratory symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers. Eur Respir J. 2007; Vol. 29, nº 4: 690 – 698.
Nemery, B., Hoet, P. H. M., Nowak, D. (2002). Indoor swimming pools, water chlorination andrespiratory health. Eur. Respir. J. 19: 790-793.Parrat, J. (2008). Evaluation de l’exposition à la trichloramine atmosphérique de maîtres nageures,employés et utilisateurs dês piscines couverts des cantons de Fribourg, Neuchâtel et du Jura. Rapportpour Laboratoire Intercantonal de Santé au Travail. Peseux. Suíça.Rylander, R., Victorin, K., Sörensen, M. (1973).
The effect of saline on the eye irritation caused byswimming pool water. J. Hyg. Camb. 71: 587 – 592.WHO. (2006). Guidelines for safe recreational water environments. Volume 2, Swimming pools andsimilar environments. World Health Organization. Geneva.
OTHER RESEARCH SOURCES:
Decreto Estadual no 13.166/79
Decreto-Lei nº 79/2006
Lei Estadual no 9.975/98
Lei Municipal no 13.725/04 (Código Sanitário do Município) Lei Municipal no 13.993/05
Decreto Municipal no 50.225/08
Portaria Municipal SMSG no 562/04
NORMAS DA ABNT SOBRE PISCINAS
NBR 9818/1987 - Projeto de execução de piscinas – Tanque e entorno
NBR 10339/1988 - Projeto de execução de piscinas – Sistema de recirculação e tratamento
NBR 10818/1989 - Qualidade de água de piscinas
NBR 10819/1989 - Projeto e execução de piscinas (casa das máquinas, vestiários e banheiros)
NBR 11238/1990 - Segurança e higiene de piscinas NBR 11887/2003 - Hipoclorito de cálcio – Especificação