Prof. JOAO BASTOS
Tips about Nutrition
Nutrition Vs Swimming
Performance in the pool depends on several factors, including genetics, training, motivation and diet. Unfortunately, many swimmers do not pay attention to diet, and therefore compromise performance.
Making wise choices in food provides muscles with the proper fuel and allows you to train longer and in better conditions.
Feeding in Swimming
Carbohydrate: 300 to 500 grams per day
Adequate amounts of carbohydrates are essential for swimming performance. Carbohydrates are the most efficient source of energy for muscles.
A swimmer's diet should consist of at least 60% of the total carbohydrate calories like breads, cereals, rice, dough, breads, sweet rolls, fruits and vegetables.
Swimmers who train consecutive days should adopt a high-carbohydrate diet with at least 300 to 500 grams per day or 4 to 5 grams of carbohydrates per 500 grams of body weight.
Before the training
Meals made within 3 to 4 hours before training should be balanced and composed of a wide variety of nutrients. The ideal is to include food sources of vitamins and minerals (vegetables and fruits), proteins (meat, eggs) and carbohydrates (pasta, rice, potato etc), but when there is little time between the last meal and the training or race to prioritise the intake of carbohydrates and avoid the consumption of fats. Carbohydrate-rich foods should be consumed 1 to 4 hours before workouts.
The thirsty feeling may be less noticeable in athletes of water sports. However, the risks of dehydration are great if there is no constant water replenishment. Although many athletes only consume liquids when thirsty, a tip is always to leave a bottle by the pool to increase the frequency of consumption. Sports drinks are best suited for the hydration of a swimmer, since re hydration takes place more quickly.
After the training
A swimmer should consume at least 70 grams of carbohydrate within 30 minutes after exercise, followed by an additional 75 to 100 grams (300 to 400 Kcal) every 2 to 4 hours, from there forward. Carbohydrate intake can be accompanied by other food sources of protein, vitamins and minerals when it coincides with the usual lunch or dinner time. With respect to hydration, the minimum amount for fluid replacement after training is 3 cups (680ml) per 500g of lost weight, so there is a need to weigh the athlete before and after training, thus promoting a better recovery.
This will help restore muscle energy levels (glycogen) before the next event or exercise. Otherwise, it may take 24 hours to replenish your muscles. Protein replacement is also extremely important. The average protein intake by a competitive swimming athlete is 1.5 to 2gr per kg body weight.
Nutrition during exercises or competition
Research done on training sessions lasting more than thirty minutes showed that consuming carbohydrates can improve performance. While it is inconvenient to eat during swimming, it is beneficial to consume a sports drink that provides liquids and carbohydrates. Consuming carbohydrate during practice or competition delays fatigue and allows swimmers to train more time and effort.
Liquids: Drink a lot
Although swimmers are surrounded by water, they are still vulnerable to dehydration, especially during the summer. Swimmers who lose less than 1% of body weight with sweating may have adversely affected performance. For a swimmer who weighs about 70 kilos, this means a weight loss of less than one pound and can cause fatigue and dehydration.
Unfortunately, most swimmers only drink when they are thirsty. It should be remembered that thirst is not a good indicator of the amount of fluid needed by the body. Drink plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise and competitions. An appropriately formulated sports drink, such as Gatorade, provides liquid and carbohydrate to maintain performance. Studies have shown that athletes get more hydrated when they consume sports drinks than when they consume only water.
Keep a bottle of liquid on the pool deck, to be drunk between reps and sets.
Weigh athletes before and after training by encouraging them to drink at least 3 cups (680 ml) of liquid for every 500 grams lost during exercise.
Swimmers who routinely lose more than 1% body weight during practice should be encouraged to drink more to stay more hydrated.
Check the urine color of the athletes. Dark-colored urine may indicate that he / she is dehydrated and needs to drink liquid.
Avoid fizzy drinks that can cause swelling and reduce the amount of fluid consumed.
Avoid caffeinated and alcoholic drinks as they can cause the body to lose fluid.
TRUTHS AND MYTHS ABOUT FOOD SUPPLEMENTATION FOR YOUNG SWIMMERS
When we talk about supplementation it is very difficult to separate the truth from the myths. Everyone already has an opinion formed, and most of the time these opinions are based on rumors, misinformation, or a story in the 8am newspaper.
This article will show you the 14 popular myths of supplementation and workout intensity.
MYTH 1: GIRLS OR WOMEN ATHLETES MUST TRAIN LIGHTER?
Women also need to train hard. Beginning that women do not have testosterone as much as a man to get muscular the way they imagine they will get if they train hard. Heavy training will only bring benefit to your health, for whatever goal you may have in mind. It may be to increase calorie burning, decrease sagging or increase muscle mass to protect the joints and tendons most required in swimming training or symmetry.
MYTH 2: WOMEN CAN NOT TAKE MEN'S SUPPLEMENTS?
In connection with the myth that was quoted above, women are afraid to take supplements, thinking that they are in danger of looking masculine, confusing or associating these with anabolic, even thinking that will have the same effect. The supplement is above all a benefit to your health, it will help in your training routine along with proper nutrition. So you can in a healthy way reach your goal in less time.
Unless you use anabolic steroids, it will not be a supplement or a more drawn workout that will make you turn a monster.
MYTH 3: WHEY PROTEIN FATTENING?
Whey Protein is not fattening. Of course, if you consume excessively you will gain weight, but this happens with any type of food. Ingesting the right amount of protein daily will ensure optimal muscle gains. On the other hand, if you do not consume a good amount of protein, you will not get muscles.
MYTH 4: ARE THE SUPPLIES A WASTE OF MONEY?
Supplements maximize the results of athletes of various sports modalities. If supplements were not beneficial and promoted consistent results, the supplement industry would not earn billions every year. Well, now you may be thinking that the tobacco and alcohol industries also make billions. True, but people who buy cigarettes and beer do not want to get in shape with it.
MYTH 5: DO I NEED SUPPLEMENTS WITH A GOOD FOOD?
A balanced diet is a good start, but that does not mean that you are fulfilling all the nutritional needs your body needs. Remember, you are an athlete and not an ordinary individual. Nutrient needs may vary according to age, health, stress and intense training. Consider the supplements an insurance policy, which fills the gaps that you can not only with a good diet.
MYTH 6: CREATINE IS A STEROID?
Creatine has nothing to do with steroids. Creatine is a natural substance found in the human body, which helps provide energy primarily to the muscle cells. To improve performance, anabolic steroids are drugs that mimic the benefits of the male sex hormone, testosterone. While creatine is safe and natural, the use of steroids is accompanied by many potentially dangerous side effects.
MYTH 7: SUPPLEMENTS WILL GIVE YOU MUSCLES EVEN IF YOU DO NOT TRAIN?
Although supplements can improve your overall health, there are magic pills that can turn you into a bodybuilder from day to night. Supplements help maximize your results but will not make you bigger and stronger if you are not working hard at the gym and are feeding properly.
MYTH 8: SUPPLEMENTS CAUSE SIDE EFFECTS?
Most of the ingredients contained in supplements are found naturally in the human body, or in the foods we eat. Adequate supplementation may cause fewer side effects than food.
MYTH 9: CREATINE, OR WHEY PROTEIN CAUSE STONES IN KIDNEYS?
Because of its popularity as a performance enhancing supplement, the use of creatine or why protein has been extensively studied. Increasingly studies show that creatine and whey protein are safe and non-toxic to the kidneys. Of course, everything in excess is not beneficial, so we should take it in the right dose.
MYTH 10: DOES THE USE OF CREATINE CAUSE MUSCULAR CABLES?
As with the previous myth, this myth has also been studied and proved to be untrue. In fact, one study found that athletes who supplement with creatine have fewer muscle cramps, strains, injuries, and dehydration than other athletes.
MYTH 11: DO THE SUPPLEMENTS WORK IN THE SAME WAY IN EVERYONE?
This is completely false. Each individual is unique, the same supplement may work better for some than for others. This happens in the same way with workouts and diets.
MYTH 12: RICH DIETS IN PROTEINS ARE NOT HEALTHY?
There is no research to support the claim that a high protein diet has negative effects on the body.
MYTH 13: DO NOT ATHLETES NEED EXTRA PROTEIN?
Proteins help build and repair damaged muscle tissue with exercise. In addition, studies indicate that if a minimum amount of protein is not consumed, athletes in addition to losing muscles, will overload their tendons. Mainly on the shoulders because of the sports modality (swimming).
MYTH 14: FOOD AND ANABOLIZING SUPPLEMENTS ARE THE SAME THING?
According to Unifesp, anabolic steroids are drugs manufactured to replace the male hormone produced by the testicles, called Testosterone. Anabolics help muscle growth (anabolic effect) and development of male sexual characteristics such as: hair, beard, thick voice etc (androgenic effect). They are used as medicines to treat patients who do not produce enough Testosterone.
A food supplement like Whey Protein, for example, is a high quality protein powder from cow's milk. The milk has two proteins: casein (about 80%) and Whey Protein (about 20%). Whey protein is more soluble than casein and also has a higher level of quality. It is often referred to as the "Gold Standard" of protein, as they are the most nutritious proteins available, according to the Whey Protein Institute for a Healthy Whey of Life.
Before taking any supplements or administering them, consult a sports nutritionist.
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Pagina Web de Nutrición de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp).